According to Schott, the manufacturing of transparent or translucent ceramics is based on a sophisticated process chain. Depending on the application, highly reactive oxide nanopowders of various compositions are mixed, doped, homogenized in liquid media and then dried again. Afterwards they are pressed into shapes like optical lenses, for instance, and sintered into ceramics inside a special high-temperature furnace at up to 2,000°C inside a vacuum or 1,800°C in the open air. The sintered parts are then cut and polished for further processing. Credit: Schott.